Annual Proceedings of the Naval museum
“Annual proceedings of the Naval Мuseum-Varna” is a serious achievement in publishing activities and scientific studies of the Naval museum. The first volume was printed in 2001. The last VII volume was published on the eve of 2010. In the Annual proceedings edited by a college of scientists, dynamic and many-sided, maritime and naval studies of history of Bulgaria and the region were published. Because of variety of scientific studies the Naval Мuseum collaborates with authors from different parts of the country. They work in different sphere – historians, engineers, officers and represent different museums, institutes, individual research workers and authors of memoirs.
- Annual proceedings of the naval museum - volume I
ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE NAVAL MUSEUM – VARNA
Todor PARUSHEV. The Naval Museum in Varna – 7
Elka DROSNEVA. Varna, 1928 – 1829: Evidences of Eyewitnesses – 13
Mariana KRASTEVA. The Participation Of France in The Build Up of The Bulgarian Navy – 52
Nadejda DONCHEVA. Creation and Activity of The First Seaside Medical Institution in Bulgaria – 61
Valkan VALKANOV. The Flying Boat Squadron – Establishment and Military Missions in Bulgaria During the World War I (1916-1920) – 72
Atanas PANAYOTOV. The Bulgarian Naval Funds (1913 – 1945) – 109
Todor PARUSHEV. The Merchant Shipping of Bulgaria (1944-1948) – 157
Mariana KRASTEVA. The International Shipping of Bulgaria During the Period After the World War II (1944 – 1948) – 200
Jordan BAEV. Bulgarian Intelligence Estimates on NATO’s Naval Power in the Eastern Mediterranean (1955 – 1975) – 227
Jordan BAEV. Mass Audience Objective Analysis – 243
Peter DERELIEV. A Different Look At The History Of The Contemporary Naval Art – 249
Veska MINCHEVA. Temporary exhibitions of the Naval museum - Varna (1995 – 2000) – 254
A B S T R A C T S
VARNA, 1928 – 182: EVIDENCES OF EYEWITNESES
Elka Drosneva, Ph. D, Ass. Prof.
The Varna fortress was the only time capture by Russians during the war of 1828 – 1829. The fact was commented by the Russian propaganda of that time as an argument that the Empire and the emperor were stronger than Svetoslav of the 10-th century and Vladislav of the 15-th century who failed to capture the town. During the months of the Russian domination Varna turned into something like a micro-model of the Eastern question-representatives of all of the countries engaged used to live in it or just to visit it. Several Russians have published at that time or some 30 years later books in which they shared the impressions from the town and its inhabitants, from the war and on the Eastern questions. The represents in Russian the materials written by the poet Victor Teplyakov, the officers Doljnikov, Feodor Tornau and Nikolai Lukiyanovich, the diplomat Felix Fonton and in the reprinted articles from a newspaper ”Listok dlya Rodinai” that was published in Varna during the war. All of them also discussed the everyday life, the Nature, the architecture, the relations among people, questions of religion
THE PARTICIPATION OF FRANCE IN THE BUILD UP OF THE BUILD UP OF THE BULGARIAN NAVY
The direct participation of France in the build up and the development of the Bulgarian Navy has been recorded in the period of 1897-1908. Following intergovernmental agreements a French naval mission arrived and worked in Bulgaria, and as commander-in chief of the Bulgarian Navy was worked in Bulgaria, and as commander-in – chief of the Bulgarian Navy was appointed commodore Paul Pichon. Naval vessels and equipment have been procured during this 10 – years period and many naval officers have been trained. In an attempt to sum up the effects of the period one cannot underestimate the objective need of the Bulgarian state to seek assistance from the developed naval forces, neither could one ignore the intentional and unintentional mistakes, to the detriment of the maritime development of the country. Important roles in this process have played both the official state policy, as well as individuals with their specific characters. Nevertheless, we should acknowledge that the period of close cooperation of the Bulgarian naval development with the French tradition has had a great impact on the modernization of the Bulgarian Navy and on its integration in the modern European trends.
CRЕATION AND ACTIVITY OF THE FIRST SEASIDE MEDICAL INSTITUTION IN BULGARIA
At the end of the 18th century in Western Europe began the revival of thalasotherapy or marinotherapy q which had been forgotten for many centuries. Marinotherapy is a treatment using physical and chemical features of the sun, water and air at the seaside. These three factors-form the coastal climate and a good effect on the human health. At thе end of the 19th century in Bulgaria a process of getting aware of the importance of the sea as a curative place especially for treatment of tuberculosis has started. As a result in 1905 the first Bulgarian seaside medical institution- The State Children’s Sanatorium in Varna was founded. Its foundation was connected with the public activity of Prof. P. Stoyanov – creator of the Bulgarian surgical school.
This is how at the beginning of 20th century the thalasotherapy was introduced in Bulgaria.
THE FLYING BOAT SQUADRON ESTABLISHMENT AND MILITARY MISSIONS IN BULGARIA DURING THE WORLD WAR I (1916 – 1920)
Assoc. professor Valkan Valkanov, Ph. D.
The study’s aim is to clarify the main stages of the creation and the first step of the flying boat aviation in Bulgaria. The idea for its establishment occurred after the Russian Black Sea fleet’s artillery bombarded Varna on the 14th of October 1915. the first group of Navy seamen was constituted on the 20th of May 1916 and was composed of: 3 officers , 6 petty officers and 16 seamen, who began training in Germany. In the meantime German flying boats were deployed in Varna and began air-reconnaissance flights and were at 15-minute alert to meet enemy and were at 15–minute alert to meet enemy air raids against the city. The main characteristics of the first Bulgarian flying boats are cited in the study, as well as data about the participation of their crews in various missions during the World War I in the region. The study puts into scientific use a number of archive sources, kept in the Naval Museum in Varna, which give an opportunity to present a more detailed picture of this new activity for Bulgarian Navy at that time.
THE BULGARIAN NAVAL FUNDS (1913 – 1945)
Atanas Panajotov Ph. D.
The study is dedicated to the activities of the Bulgarian National Maritime Association (BNMA) , the General Staff of the Navy and their specialized press publications about the incorporation of the public naval funds, established after the Balkan war, and reaching their goal-the purchase of a combat, training of auxiliary vessel for the national defense. The main attention is paid to the utilization of the press by BPMA and the Naval command in this effort. Detailed analysis is made of these factors in the activities of the funds “Otets Paisii Cruiser”, “People’s Navy”, “Torpedo Boat St. Cyril and Methodius “, “Bulgarian Navy”, “Monitor Rousse”, “The Erection of a Monument of the Perished Bulgarian Sailor”, “White Sea Cruiser”. A parallel is made with the results on the analogy of the force in the country. The activities of different funds supporting the education and training in the Naval Academy have been studied. Parallel to this similar funds in support of different civil and maritime activities have been mentioned.
Although not very effective, The joint activities of the Naval Staff and the BNMA to incorporate the established public funds to support the naval and river defense, expanded the influence of both organizations and won new sympathizers of the Bulgarian maritime idea.
The study of this unknown to the wide public problem is a source of the ideas and lessons, which could be useful to the contemporary leaders to uphold the aspiration of Bulgaria to become a rightful member of NATO with its naval forces.
The merchant shipping of Bulgaria 1944 – 1948
Todor Parushev Ph. D.
All the ships of the biggest Bulgarian shipping company have been sunk during the World War II. The merchant fleet in the fall of 1944 consisted of several sailing and sailing/motor-powered barges, owned by private or co-operative companies.
Serious developments occurred during the period 1944 – 1948, concerting the change of the ownership of the various vessels. Shipping company was fully nationalized in 1947. The same was the destiny of the rest of the private and co-operative companies, which followed soon. All of them entered the newly established on the 16th of September 1947 Bulgarian state-owned shipping company. There was no alternative to the state-owned shipping, although the establishment of co-operative societies has been discusses.
Parallel to these changes in the organisation, began the rebuilding of the Bulgarian merchant shipping. This process was impeded by the lack of foreign currency and the yet unsettled international status of the country. Nevertheless the state spared some funds to purchase in Denmark and Sweden two modern merchantmen-the “Rodina” and “Bulgaria”. A third vessel was ordered. Till 1948 the Bulgarian merchant fleet had reached only half of its pre-war tonnage. The merchant fleet also played a great part in the rebuilding of the country’s industry, supplying it with machinery, equipment and raw materials.
The international shipping of Bulgaria during the period after the World War II (1944 – 1948)
The international trade relations of Bulgaria realised by its water transport are an important factor for the industrial development of the country. During the first years after the World war II Bulgaria was in an extremely unfavorable position at the international political field The sipping tonnage lost during the war, and the clauses of the Armistice with the Allies in fact did block out the Bulgarian marine industry, including its participation in the international trade. This situation was further aggravated by the war dangers at sea lanes and by the still unsettled diplomatic relations with a number of countries and the tensions with its southern neighbors. The country entered the international conventions only if they did not contradict its international political principles as an “Eastern Block” country; it did not show any activity and commitment to the international maritime organizations. During the period until the Peace treaty was signet (15th September 1947) a lot of difficulties have been overcome, thanks to insistent action of the directly involved economic enterprises, the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry and distinct individuals. The Bulgarian sea-borne trade gradually freed itself from the impeding factors and took course of development, based mainly on the cooperation between the Eastern Block countries.
Bulgarian intelligence estimates on NATO’S maritime power in the eastern mediterranean (1955 – 1975)
Jordan Baev Ph. D.
A valuable information about East-European military leaders’ assessments and forecasts on NATO’s maritime power in the Eastern Mediterranean can be discovered at the currently declassified Bulgarian State, Political, Diplomatic, Military and security archival records. In compliance with the Warsaw Pact Allied Military Command’ strategic concepts in regard of the “missile nuclear war”, at the end of the 1950-ies-early 60-ies the attention of the Bulgarian military and political intelligence services is aimed predominantly at the discovery of missile and nuclear NATO and US bases in Turkey and Greece. The main NATO naval group, comprising the naval forces of the USA, the Great Britain, France, Italy, Turkey and Greece, is concentrated in the Mediterranean.
The Bulgarian intelligence estimates concentrate especially on the potential of the Greek and Turkish naval forces and their participation in NATO maneuvers and military exercise. In some summary studies of the Bulgarian General Staff’ Intelligence department major NATO military exercises are analyzed. It is point out in these estimate that in the period stated both countries’ participation in NATO naval exercises keep on increasing all the time. After 1967 one third of Turkish Naval Forces within the NATO complement are based on the Black Sea –mainly torpedo and missile cruiser and submarines.
The available Intelligence data of the assumed intentions and operations of the NATO countries are used for planning the operational-tactical and staff exercises involving the Warsaw Pact Black Sea Fleets. One of the main tasks set to the Bulgarian and Romanian Navies and the Soviet Black Sea Fleets is to off a coastal landing after elemi’s nuclear missile strike. In the analyses prepared it is once again underlined: “Following the assessment of the NATO Allied Command the Black Sea Straits – Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, shall be the most important areas of hostilities at the South-European war theater”.
- Annual proceedings of the naval museum - volume II
ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE NAVAL MUSEUM – VARNA
Igor LAZARENKO. A Hellenistic Coin Shaped Control Weight of Odessos – 6
Alexander MINCHEV. The Trade Contacts Between Еgypt and the Greek Cities on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast (4th through 1st century BC) – 19
Valentin PLETNYOV. Lead Tops for Teriak from Varna – 27
Iskra KAPINCHEVA. From the History of the Quarantine Service in Varna – 32
Varban TODOROV, Andreas LIBERATOS. The Archive Collection in Greek Language in the State Archive of Varna and the History of Greek Community and Bishopry in Varna (19th - 20th century) – 44
B. DRYANOVSKI. Private Navigation and Attempts to Establish Shipping Companies (1878- 1912) – 61
Atanas PANAYOTOV, Mariana KRASTEVA. Problems of the Bulgarian Naval Shipbuilding and Shiprepair – 70
Todor PARUSHEV. Restoration of the Pre-war Condition of High-sea Shipping in Bulgaria 1949 – 1957 – 107
Asen KOJUHAROV, Boyan MEDNIKAROV. Some Aspects of use of Fast Attack Crafts in the Second Indo-Pakistany War 1971 – 147
Zheni HARALAMBIEVA. Collection of Seals in the Funds and Exhibitions of the Naval Museum – 166
Trayan TRAYANOV. First Bulgarian Underwater Archeological Expeditions and the Naval Museum in Varna – 180
Jordan BAEV. Stalin and the Black Sea Straits - New Records – 192
Stanka DIMITROVA. Interesting and Useful Settlement Study of Pomorie – 212
Ivan STAVREV. The Heritage of Coastal Strandja – 217
Atanas PANAYOTOV. Bulgaria and Turkey (1931- 1941): from Confrontation to Collaboration in the Revision of the Treaty of Lausanne Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits from 1923 – 220
Rossitza DOBREVA. Naval Academy Jubilee Publishing Program "120 Years Naval School” – 223
Rossitza DOBREVA. Information for the Printed Titles on Publishing Plans of the Naval Academy for the Period 1991-2001 – 226
SUPPLEMENTS – 237
A B S T R A C T S
А HELLENISTIC COIN-SHAPED CONTROL WEIGHT OF ODESSOS
In this article, the author comments a control weight of Odessos found in the vicinity of Razgrad. It is a circular bronze plaque, struked on the one side only by the means of a reverse coin-stamp of Odessos, executed in 3d century BC. Its weight is connected to that of a drachma, minted in the Eubean-Attic coin standard. The way of its execution is very close to that of a coin-shaped control weight of king Roimetalkes I (10th BC – 12 AD).
THE TRADE CONTACTS BETWEEN EGYPT AND THE GREEK CITIES ON THE BULGARIAN BLACK SEA COAST (4th THROUGH 1st CENTURY BC)
Based on a newfound rare Late Hellenistic lamp of Egyptian origin (Fig 1/a-b) and some older Egyptian finds from Odessos, Dionyssopolis and the region of Dobrudja, the author traced the trade contacts between Egypt and the Greek cities on the Bulgarian Black sea coast during the Hellenistic period. Apart from lamps, also ivory for decoration of sarcofagi, faience vessels and amulets, terracottae figurines of Egyptian deities and even special vessels for religious or burial ceremonies (fig 2-11) were imported by sea to the Western Black sea-coast at least from 4th through 1st century BC.
LEAD TOPS FOR TERIAK FROM VARNA
Four lead tops are presented, which have been found in Varna while excavating the Roman Bath. Glazed earthenware was sealed with them, containing the extremely valuable medieval medicine-panacea teriak. It was produced mainly in Venice after the middle of 15th century. On the tops are displayed the emblems of the drugstores - producers. The four tops from Varna are forgery, probably made in Istambul. They are imitations of the originals from the drugstore "At the Golden Head" in Venice. They bear the date 1603. The fact that four completely identical tops were found at one place, is a reason to suppose that the medicine teriak was distributed on our territory through the port of Varna, during the first half of the 17th century for certain.
FROM THE HISTORY OF THE QUARANTINE SERVICE IN VARNA
The speading in large numbers of infectious diseases during the Middle Ages, mainly by means of sailing and trade, leads to the beginning of the first quarantines in the large harbour cities of Europe. In connection with the Islam religious rituals and the pilgrimage of the Mohammedan in the places, which they worship - Mecca and Medina, the choleric and plague epidemics are quite often in the Ottoman empire. Through the ships arriving in the city of Varva the infection is quickly spread among the Bilgarian population. In 1847, Dr Bulard is sent from Constantinopol to organize the quarantine control in Varna. Diring the following years, the quarantine service in Varna develops according to the international conventions, the achievements of medical science and the international concepts for up-to-date quarantine.
THE ARCHIVE COLLECTION IN GREEK LANGUAGE IN THE STATE ARCHIVE OF VARNA AND THE HISTORY OF GREEK COMMUNITY AND BISHOPRY IN VARNA (19th - 20th century)
Varban TODOROV, Andreas LIBERATOS
This publication is an attempt to present the almost unknown archive material in Greek language of the Greek community and the Greek bishopry in Varna in the course of nearly two centuties, which is preserved in the State Archive of the city. The documents in the two funds include notebooks and books of the community and the bishopry, and the institutions connected with them, as well as communal and private correspondence. Until the middle of the 19th century the Greek community is the only orthodox community of Christians in the city. This attracts immigrants from the Ottoman Empire, Greece and the Ionian Islands. During the second half of the 19th century important events mark the Bulgarian national revival in Varna. After 1878, the duties of the Greek community, its number and economic power are reduced. During the first half of the 20th century the Greek community falls apart and the Greek ethnic minotity in the city emigrates or is assimilated.
PRIVATE NAVIGATION AND ATTEMPS TO ESTABLISH SHIPPING COMPANIES UNTIL THE YEAR 1912
After the Liberation in Bulgaria there was not any maritime transport, if we do not take into consideration the small owners of barges, caiques and sailing vessels in Burgas, Varna, Balchik and some other seaport towns.
The earliest piece of information about ships owned by Bulgarian citizens is dated back to the nineties in the ХІХth century. These are the ships "Suedinenie" and "Ferdinand". The necessity of goods traffic forced many trading and building companies to purchase small ships and sailing vessels and with them to do coastwise navigation and sea transport to Tsarigrad.
The first endeavors to establish joint-stock companies and bring in some funds for purchasing big and modern ships are made in Varna and Burgas but because of a variety of circumstances those andeavors did not succeed.
Although that information is incomplete, during the year 1911 Bulgaria has got 10 steamers and 120 sailing-crafts.
PROBLEMS OF THE BULGARIAN NAVAL SHIPBUILDING AND SHIP REPAIR
Atanas PANAYOTOV, Mariana Krasteva
Naval Shipbuilding and Shiprepair reflect directly the state and the problems of the Navy and are a major factor for the maintenance of its fighting strength. The period 1919 - 1947 includes nearly 3 decades between two peace treaties - after the World War I (the Neuilly Treaty of 27th of November 1919) and after the World War II (the Paris Peace Treaty of 10th of February 1947). The paper covers the mains aspects of the state, tasks and problems of the Bulgarian Naval Shipbuilding and Ship repair, given that all its characteristics are wholly dependent on the state and problems of the Bulgarian Naval Forces. These specific industries were objectively influenced by the internal and international developments and events during this period. The Neuilly Treaty which prohibited Bulgaria to possess its own Navy, impeded the development of the Naval Shipbuilding and Ship repair. The alliances of Bulgaria with major military and political forces during the World War II also had their impact on the development and the specifics of these industries. Yet, the shipbuilding and ship repair have been adequate to the efforts of the state to maintain the fighting strength of the Navy and to serve the national defence.
RESTORATION OF THE PRE-WAR CONDITION OF HIGH-SEA SHIPPING IN BULGARIA 1949 - 1957
The period 1949 -1957 is important to our high-sea shipping mostly for the creation of its law basis and the regulation of its activity as a state enterprise. Despite the stagnation at the beginning of the 50s and at the end of the period, the pre-war condition of high-sea shipping is reached and outpaced on each point. For the first time in the development of the high-sea shipping the problem with the chief personnel - captains and mechanics, was settlеd. The range of the sea sailings was extended to most of the European ports, the Soviet ports in the North Sea, as well as to distant India. Navigation Maritime Bulgare has a significant contribution in the realization of the big projects carried out during the first and second five year periods, with its regular supplies from the USSR. The currency income was quite increased. In conclusion, it can be pointed out that the Bulgarians have regained their self-confidence as a sea nation.
SOME ASPECTS OF USE OF FAST ATTACK CRAFTS IN THE SECOND INDO-PAKISTANY WAR
Asen KOJUHAROV, Boyan MEDNIKAROV
This article describes the modern sea ambush. The nature of the fast attack craft ambush is revealed on the basis of comparative historical analysis.
COLLECTION OF SEALS IN THE FUNDS AND EXHIBITIONS OF THE NAVAL MUSEUM
The exposition presents a collection of seals (60 pieces) in the Naval Museum.They were used on ships, by services and subdivisions of the navy and by different branches of the maritime public organization Bulgarian National Maritime Society, and the personal signature seal of a naval official.
The National Emblem is displayed on most of the seals. The existing marine simbols: an anchor and a ship, prove the creation of a symbolics of its own by the naval institutions and public organizations in the Third Bulgarian State. The technical societies also use original symbols: a toothed wheel, a triangle, a chimney stack and a pair of compasses. All this once again shows the specific functions of the naval establishments and the beginning of the maritime development in our country.
FIRST BULGARIAN UNDERWATER ARCHEOLOGICAL EXPEDITIONS AND THE NAVAL MUSEUM IN VARNA
The research is dedicated to the first underwater archeological expedition in Bulgaria during the period 1959 - 1987, and especially to the contribution of the city of Varna to this new science, in particular, the underwater archeological expeditions organized by the Naval Museum and the participants in them.
It have been used data from skin-diving diaries 1958 - 1962, 1963, 1964 and 1965, of the Volunteer group for underwater archeological researches at the Naval Museum, order books of the museum's manager 1965 - 1967, publication and memories of the author, who himself is a participant in most of the held expeditions.
It have been shown data, which for some reasons can't be found in the existing publications. This research points out the leaders of the expeditions from the Naval Museum, the underwater explorers who have taken part in them and the more important results achieved by them.
- Annual proceedings of the naval museum - volume III
ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE NAVAL MUSEUM – VARNA
Rumen KOVACHEV. Registers of the Istanbul Ottoman Archives About Varna During the Second Half of 16 Century – 7
Borislav DRIANOVSKI. Some Aspects of the Bulgarian Maritime Legislation (1878 – 1912) – 61
Elisaveta DIMITROVA. National Traditions in the Rituals of the Bulgarian Navy – 70
Vladimir PAVLOV. The Bulgarian Merchant Fleet during Two Balcan Wars and till I World War (1912-1915) – 80
Veliko LECHEV. The Austrian Empire and the Danube Question (1914 – 1916) – 104
Mariana KRASTEVA, Atanas PANAYOTOV. The Voyages of Libertad and Salvador with Jewish Refugees to Palestine in 1940 136
Todor PARUSHEV. The Big Boom of the Bulgarian Shipping (1058 – 1966) – 155
Jeni HARALAMBIEVA. Maritime Heritage of Bulgaria in the Fund and the Library of the Naval Museum – 209
Veska MINCHEVA. The Exposition of the Naval Museum – 218
Mariana Krasteva. Research Activities in the Naval Museum. Bibliography – 224
Nevyana DIMITROVA. The 10th Anniversary of The Museum of Bulgarian Maritime Industry – 248
Lachezar AVRAMOV. Exposition of the Naval academy – 258
SUPPLEMENTS – 265
A B S T R A C T S
REGISTERS OF THE ISTANBUL OTTOMAN ARCHIVES ABOUT VARNA DURING THE SECOND HALF OF 16 CENTURY
The Ottoman registers are amongst the best preserved archive records, created during the early centuries of the Ottoman reign on the Balkans – both in Bulgaria and Turkey. They often contain the earliest known data about the settlements, included in the timars and vakafs, and it is not rare when this is the only data available about the economic situation, the administrative structure and the demographic status of the population in the respective settlements and regions.
During the recent years, thanks to the well-developed business cooperation with the management of the Ottoman Archives in Istanbul (Basbalkanlik Osmanli Arsivi), our archives have been replenished with new Ottoman registers. The information, which is submitted here is extracted from register of that type (mufassal).
The two and especially the first of the newly received inventories contain first-class data about the social and economic, military and administrative structures and the demographic development of Varna and it region during the 16th century. The existing before the invasion varied economic and ethno-demographic structures has not changed much and as a whole entered as a stable element within the entire economic and administrative system of the kaaza, Silistra sandjak and the right wing of the Ottoman army. Many of its elements, entered in the registers, have reached us in a form, which resembles their state during the free Bulgarian state.
Certain continuity may be discovered in the administrative organization. Until the last quarter of the 15th century small Christian hamlets existed around the fortress and the well-established economic center – which was Varna during the Middle Ages. The Ottoman invasion had negative influence, although for a short period of time, upon the system of settlements, forts, roads and passes, but in the last quarter of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries they were completely restored.
SOME ASPECTS OF THE BULGARIAN MARITIME LEGISLATION (1878 – 1912)
The period 1878 – 1912 is marked with the development of the Third Bulgarian State and its legislation. Concerning the shipping, an appropriate legislative basis has been built to transform Bulgaria into modern maritime state. The paper focuses on the main legislative acts, concerning the private and state-owned shipping, as well as most of the maritime industrial activities.
NATIONAL TRADITION IN THE RITUALS OF THE BULGARIAN NAVY
In 1878 in Bulgaria begins the realization of a systematic policy which aim is to up, maintain and preserve the customs. In the army, that lay the foundation of our military traditions in modern times. After the 500 years of Turkish occupation it is important to change the general attitude of the Bulgarians towards the state – to love, build, govern and defend it. It is necessary to create new social virtues cultivated in the male population whose duty is the army. There is an also in the concepts of order, discipline, respect for the symbolism, etc.
The present expose shows to what extent the system of holidays and rituals in the army is maintained and developed as an integral part of the military traditions. The documents kept in the central military archives in Veliko Turnovo prove that in its development the navy has built up an active system of specific rituals.
THE BULGARIAN MERCHANT FLEET DURING TWO BALCAN WARS AND TILL I WORLD WAR (1912-1915)
During the two wars Bulgaria has only five merchant ships and 17 small vessels for coastal sailing. In the autumn of 1912 they are put under the orders of the Navy. Three of the ships are left inactive and their crews take port part in the military operations at the land front. The ships “Varna” and “Boris” are used for transportation purposes in favouz of the Bulgarian army. Their main base is the harbour of Dedeagach (Alexandrupolis). In the spring of 1913 Bulgarian merchant ships make voyages from Midia to Varna for the transporting of parts of the army. During the Second Balcan War (June – August 1913) the five ships stay of the Russian harbor Sevastopol in order to avoid being seized by Romanian authorities.
THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE AND THE DANUBE QUESTION (1914 – 1916)
The paper deals with the policy of the Austrian (Austria-Hungarian) empire, concerning the Danube question during the period between 28th July 1914 and 17th August 1916. Until the defeat of Serbia in November 1915, the efforts of the Governments in Vienna and Budapest were directed mainly at gaining control over the shipping around the Zhelezni Vrata (the Iron Gate) gorge. They relied to a higher extent on routine diplomatic moves, which – having in mind the failures on the battlefield at the Balkan and Eastern fronts – were received with reserves by Rumania and to some extent by Bulgaria as well. The plans to send monitors to this section of the river were unrealistic. And that’s why they were not fulfilled.
In November 1915 the Dual monarchy expanded its range of shipping to Tutrakan – Oltenitsa. The Rumanian government intensified its counteractions against Vienna’s initiatives to restore the pre-war provisions for the shipping in Lower Danube. The hope to reach this goal with the assistance of the European Danube Commission was more than self-deceptive, because the countries from the Entante had more delegates within the Commission. In the eve of the war together with Rumania an agreement was reached for a memo about the post-war treatment of the Danube question, in which the determination to restore the Austrian and Hungarian hegemony in the Danube region was stated.
THE VOYAGES OF LIBERTAD AND SALVADOR WITH JEW REFUGEES TO PALESTINE IN 1940
The paper focuses on episodes which are not well-researched by our historians: the participation of Bulgaria in the migration of Jew refugees by sea from the Old continent to the Blessed land – Palestine, before and during the World War II. According to the German researcher Professor Jurgen Rower only in the period 1934 – 1939 some 49 ventures have been made with refugee ships to transport 21,700 Jews and 20% of them had sailed from Bulgaria. During 1940 these ventures continued, but in much worse domestic and international conditions. In this paper, concerning the voyages of Libertad (ex- Shipka) and Salvador (ex-Tzar Krum) the authors present the concrete organizers and main players, as well as the position of different Bulgarian and foreign institutions on this problem. Answers to a whole series of questions are sought: Why were the voyages made? Who organized and financed them? Was the final goal reached and at what price? What other goals were set, apart from those of the passengers – the Jew refugees? Is their any fair correlation between the realization of the personal fate, the historic doom of a whole people and the political will of the countries involved?
THE BIG BOOM OF THE BULGARIAN SHIPPING (1058 – 1966)
The period between 1958 and 1966 is the most dynamic in the development of the maritime shipping of the country.
The shipping company Navigation Maritime Bulgare (NMB) retains its position as main shipper of the country which sets the pattern for the maritime shipping. During the sixties the company orientated towards the purchase of new vessels. A huge contract negotiated with a Japanese shipbuilding company resulted in NMB acquiring specialized vessels – coal-carriers, ore-carriers and tankers. NMB entered in a larger scale the international market.
One characteristic feature in the development of our shipping industry is the establishment of new shipping companies, owned by international trade organizations – Bulet, Texim, Rodopa. They took over a large part of the Bulgarian export and import, which resulted in spending less foreign currency. The negative side of this development is: bigger financial indebtedness of the shipping industry, bigger average age of the fleet and bigger cost of its maintenance, deficiency of well-educated personnel. The Government perceived this companies as temporary. The measures taken by it in 1966 showed that their time had expired.
In conclusion – some generalized facts about our maritime shipping. Between 1960 and 1965 the fleet grew six times bigger, whilst the world shipping had a rate of growth of 21%. In 1965 the Bulgarian maritime fleet realized some 0.330% of the worldwide shipping trade. Bulgaria had become a real maritime country.
- Annual proceedings of the naval museum - volume IV-V
ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE NAVAL MUSEUM – VARNA
REPORTS AND SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES
Rear admiral Minko Kavaldzhiev, chief of staff of the Naval Forces. Missions and tasks of the Bulgarian army and the Naval forces related to national security ensurance – 22
Brigadier Admiral Georgi GEORGIEV, commander of Varna Naval Base. BLACKSEAFOR – an idea for mutual trust and assistance – 31
Brigadier admiral Simeon TSEKOV, commander of Bourgas Naval base. Understanding history is paying homage to all generations of naval sailors – 38
Emil PETKOV. Roman river float in Dolna Mizia province in the end of III and beginning of IV century – 42
Theodora BAKARDZHIEVA. About the hazards along the Danube waterway – accidents and rescue operations (XVII-XIX cent.) – 55
Mariana BARCHEVA. Rousse as the naval officer Esper Serebryakov sees it, 1885 - 1886 – 64
Petko VELEV. 125 anniversary costal artillery-an important component of the naval forces – 71
Todorka STOYANOVA. Health care in the Bulgarian Navy during the period 1879-1912 – 81
Mariana RUSEVA. The heroism of the Bulgarian sailors during the Balkan (1912-1913) and the World War I (1915-1918) – 97
Anka IGNATOVA. The official rolls of the Bulgarian navy officers (1878-1944) as historical documents – 111
Ivan ALEXIEV. The marine films in Bulgaria until 1923 – 27
Vladimir PAVLOV. Naval contribution to Bulgarian diplomacy (1879-1950) – 135
Ivan KOEV. First Bulgarian officer in service in the Navy – 146
Veliko LECHEV. Austro-Hungary and the international Danube river and Black sea navigation regime in the eve of the peace talks with the Soviet Union – december 1917 – 166
Daniela IVANOVA. For ritual activities after fishing in Tutrakan – 172
Vassil Rodev. Commander Mincho Kolev Ostrev (1898-1972). Life and work – 188
Radka PENCHEVA. Fiction on the pages of “Morski sgovor” magazine – 204
Maria DIMOLAREVA. The fishery school 1919-1933 – 224
Nadya STOYANOVA. Captain Yanko Kutsarov – the first head of the Bulgarian river coastal navigation – 231
Nencho MITSULOV, Vladimir CHRISTAKIEV. The torpedo cutters in the Bulgarian Navy – 252
Nencho MITSULOV. Activities of Sozopol minesweeper company during the World War – 270
Yoto YOTOV. The Balkan and the Sea – 278
Krastu MALCHEV, Ilia KOVACHEV. Notes about the use of the mine weapon in Bulgarian Navy and possibilities for its application at atomic danger – 284
Todor PARUSHEV. The Bulgarian Navy in defense of our outlet on the Aegean sea in the years of the World War II (1941-1944) – 294
Stanil STANILOV. The naval armament depending on the organization for its use and storage (1947-1990) – 303
Ivan DOBREV. Third independent base trawlers division naval minesweepers – 323
Asen KOZHUHAROV. Training Students from Czechoslovakia in the Naval Academy – Varna in the period 1953-1959 – 330
Vladimir HRISTAKIEV. Development of the ship fleet of the Naval forces during the period 1960-1990 – 340
Atanas PANAYOTOV. Coastal missile equipment of the Bulgarian Navy (1962-1979) – 355
Mariana KRASTEVA. The Bulgarian Navy – at the background of the great wars of the 20th century or a product of bulgarian state policy – 367
Valentin DIMITROV. The Bulgarian navy’s participation in the Cooperative Partner exercises (1995 -2004) – 379
Hristo KONTROV. BLACKSEAFOR historical overview – 389
Stanil STANILOV. Discussion about ships and their weapons – 393
Mariana Krasteva, Atanas PANAYOTOV. About the ethics and professionalism in the historical researchеs – 397
M A B S T R A C T S
MISSIONS AND TASKS OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY AND THE NAVAL FORCES RELATED TO NATIONAL SECURITY ENSURANCE
Rear admiral Minko KAVALDZHIEV, chief of staff of the Naval Forces
The global restructuring of the international political and economic relations during the recent years confronts the institutions responsible for national security with new challenges. And after Bulgarian accession to NATO the major goal of defense is ensuring sovereignty, security and independence of the state and its territorial integrity. In this respect the Bulgarian Naval forces have their crucial place and role to play, they have to be mobile with deployment abilities, highly efficient, able to respond to the challenges of the risky environment in real time, as they should be operationally compatible both with the other bodies of the national security system and with the alliance forces of NATO.
BLACKSEAFOR-AN IDEA FOR MUTUAL TRUST AND ASSISTANCE
Brigadier Admiral Georgi GEORGIEV, commander of Varna Naval Base
On 2 April 2001 the Black sea states signed a ceremony in the Republic of Turkey a document of historical importance-agreement on the establishment of a Black Sea Naval Cooperation Task Force BLACKSEAFOR. The article deals with the main principles underlying the organization of BLACKSEAFOR and the first actions of the task force from 27 September 2001 till 25 August 2004. The author was a commander of naval forces in 2004 during the third action when Bulgaria hosted this important event in the history of all Black Sea state.
UNDERSTANDING HISTORY IS PAYING HOMAGE TO ALL GENERATIONS OF NAVAL SAILORS
Brigadier admiral Simeon TSEKOV, commander of Bourgas Naval base
Six decades now Bourgas Naval Base has been one of the two major fleet units which by way of its activity wrote and is still writing our national naval history. The history of the Bourgas Naval base, however, is much longer than 60 years. The targeted research showed that decades ago the Bulgarian state and military leadership paid due attention to our South Black sea coast defense from the sea in response to different continuously growing threats to our national security. From this perspective, the history of the base proves the foresight of those who established it and in the future decades it will continue to give meaning to the professional career of thousands of officers, sergeant majors, sailors and civil persons.
ROMAN RIVER FLOAT IN DOLNA MIZIA PROVINCE IN THE END OF III–th AND BEGINNING OF IV-th CENTURY
In publication in light of new surveys we recommend possible scheme for organization and dislocation of Roman military Danube float from the end of III-th and I-st quarter of IV-th century. In the end of III-th century in accordance with military Limes’s organization at Dioklecian Imperator toward each pedature (a half part) of legions in Dolna Mizia province is added Float military unit. They are four, situated in Nove, Seksaginta, Prista, Durostorum and Transmariska; they bring corresponding numeration in accordance to him count in ND (Notitia Dignitatum). Later after I-st quarter of IV-th century at Konstantin I, III-th river detachment from Durostorum is pre-dislocated in Apiaria. New river unit supplementary is situated at Altium. This organization in conjunction with erection to water sluice between Apiaria and Transmariska and building to Mediolanum castle afford more flexible and secure defense of Dolna Mizia limes and especially of Coast region.
AB OUT THE HAZARDS ALONG THE DANUBE WATERWAY – ACCIDENTS AND RESCUE OPERATIONS (XVII-XIX cent.)
The Danube River played a crucial role in the military-strategic plans and the economic priorities of the Ottoman Empire. Local and foreign documents from the period XVII-XIX cent. demonstrate the intensive use of the Danube water way. However, the large amount of information for tragic accidents with vessels stress the fact that voyages are not absolutely safe. The river has its hazards and both the shippers and the ship builders must take that into consideration.
Owing to the significance of the Danube River for the economic penetration of the European states into the Balkans a series of events for rendering safe the Danube waterway were undertaken. Still during the first decades of the XIX century the new steam ships appear, which are far better equipped to handle the river hazards. Turkey is also involved in the competition and orders vessels in the most prestigious shipyards. All these innovations render the Danube navigation not only profitable, but also safer for people and cargo, and this is also a requirement of modern times.
ROUSSE AS THE NAVAL OFFICER ESPER SEREBRYAKOV SEES IT, 1885-1886
The memories of the Russian Naval officer Esper Serebryakov titled “ One year in Bulgaria 1885-1886” were published in 1913. They are a rich source of the political history of Rousse during that period and reveal the life of a controversial personality. The article supports the suggestion that the commander of the Danube fleet during the Serb-Bulgarian War in 1885 was lieutenant Serebriakov, and not captain Simeon Vankov as it had been claimed to the present moment in historical studies. Furthermore, the memories reflect another point of view, that of the foreigner of the social and political manners and customs, the everyday life and the cultural traditions of the Bulgarians in the first years after the Liberation.
125 ANNIVERSARY COSTAL ARTILLERY-AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF THE NAVAL FORCES
The Naval Forces as a notion comprise two inseparable and equally important components: the water forces, called a navy and the coastal forces-called coastal defense forces (Coastal artillery, Coastal bases, dockyard, etc). The quantitative QUANTITATIVE and qualitative ratio of the two forces is defined according to the capacity and situation.
In the process of establishment of the Bulgarian Naval Forces we witness both impossible sea supremacy dreams and total rejection of the necessity to have a navy. Sometimes the role and the capacity of the ship fleet are exaggerated and sometimes the role of the coastal artillery is underestimated. Due to this “approach” and among the military and political circles in our history we had vessels with restricted combat capacity and without any coastal defense in their base. The opposite situation also existed – almost without any warship but with 4 regiment coastal artillery.
The report is an attempt at a balanced view and rectification of the common underestimation of some units of our naval forces.
HEALTH CARE IN THE BULGARIAN NAVY DURING THE PERIOD 1879-1912
From 1879 to 1912 the health care in the Bulgarian navy was organized according to the medical rules and regulations about the health services in Bulgaria.
Serious efforts have been taken in the Navy to maintain the hygiene and health protection of the personnel. Special preventive procedures have been organized against acute infections like cholera, typhus, smallpox, measles etc.
The merit for the protection of lives and health of the seamen, Navy officers and officials goes to all the doctors and paramedics who served in the Navy by that time.
THE HEROISM OF THE BULGARIAN SAILORS DURING THE BALKAN (1912-1913) AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1915-1918)
The heroic actions of the Bulgarian Navy are among one of the most spectacular military victories of the Bulgarian army during the Balkan and the First World War. The highest point of the incredible heroism and self-denial of men is the torpedo and later the defeat over the Turkish sea giant “Hamidie“. This is written down on the first page of the history of our fleet.
That presentation has for purpose through the documents, kept in the Central Military Archive in Veliko Tarnovo, to make the readers familiar with the amazing deeds of our fighters, symbols of both – mass and personal heroism.
THE OFFICIAL ROLLS OF THE BULGARIAN NAVY OFFICERS (1878-1944) AS HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS
The official rolls of the Bulgarian Army officers compared to the rest of the documents about the army personnel, composed during 1878-1944, contain the most complete information about the personality and the military service of each officer. The rolls are valuable historical sources and a basis for research work of various aspects: biographical, genealogical, social, historical etc. In order to help the specialists in their attempts to give an interpretation to these documents, the author of the study presents information about their function, way of composing, authorship, etc., based on the normative regulations and makes a general characterization of the official rolls of the Bulgarian navy officers, kept in the Central Military Record Office in the town of Veliko Turnovo.
THE MARINE FILMS IN BULGARIA UNTIL 1923
The author presents the maritime films, projected in Bulgaria from 1901 till 1923. The history of five of them has been presented in detail. The marine scenes in the film “The Balkan War” (first run – 1914) are critically analyzed. It is established that in as early as 1915 the commandment of the Bulgarian fleet used the cinema propaganda for the patriotic education of the fleet staff. In as early as 1922 a specialized marine cinema was functioning in Bulgaria.
The steady and wide presenting of documentary and feature films in Bulgaria until 1923, including the creation of original Bulgarian film products, proves the great interest of the audience to the marine theme in the whole country in as early as the first two – three decades of the history of cinema.
NAVAL CONTRIBUTION TO BULGARIAN DIPLOMACY (1879-1950)
The Naval Forces, as a state institution, have successfully contributed to the pursuit of the country’s foreign policy. The organization of visits of Bulgarian naval ships with official state representatives to foreign ports and the reception of foreign guests at our ports is one of the manifestations of good diplomacy practiced with the mediation of the Naval Forces. Experts - naval officers participate in different international commissions and forums with which they are able to protect the interests of Bulgaria as a sea state.
The tradition to maintain international political contacts also with the help of the military attaches continues to the present day.
FIRST BULGARIAN OFFICER IN SERVICE IN THE NAVY
The aim of science report is to represent the life and the activity of the first Bulgarian officer in service in the Navy, the commander of the Port Company – Alexander Georgiev Fudulaki.
He was in service in the Fleet and Marine Division only for several monts during 1884, a period during which the officers’ positions in the Bulgarian Navy were occupied mainly by Russians. But during that period several radical changes had been made in the structure, organization and personnel provision. In view of that we can appoint with reason lieutenant Fudulaki as one of the participants in the formation of the Bulgarian Navy.
AUSTRO-HUNGARY AND THE INTERNATIONAL DANUBE RIVER AND BLACK SEA NAVIGATION REGIME IN THE EVE OF THE PEACE TALKS WITH THE SOVIET UNION – DECEMBER 1917
This article considers the policy of Austro-Hungary in relation to the international Danube and Black Sea navigation regime in December 1917. Special attention is paid to the most important factors affecting the major aspects of that policy: speeding up the peace process to the East with the aim to transfer armies to the Italian front; preserving the positions of the Habsburg monarchy along the sea stretch of the Danube river and establishment of a direct transport connection with the Ukrainian and South Russian ports with view of overcoming the acute food supply crisis in the monarchy; realizing the necessity to exert efforts to curb the German hegemony in the Black Sea.
In the course of the active discussions on these issues the Austro-Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and personally earl Chernin tried to avoid any premature decisions given the unclear situation of Bessarabia and Ukraine, on which the outlet of the Soviet Union on the Danube delta depended. Despite the complexity of the situation during the discussion of the different possible versions the directly engaged politicians and military men expressed their resolution to keep the supremacy of the monarchy along the Danube River and to generate conditions for the expansion of the commercial navigation in the Black Sea.
FOR RITUAL ACTIVITIES AFTER FISHING IN TUTRAKAN
The main idea of the survey is to show that ritual activities code and keep the community know ledges. They are resistant conceptions – possession of each individual which gives answer to the surrounding world.
In the base of the ritual activities performed after fishing is the idea that doing certain activities and observing of certain defences from the fisherman have a positive effect to the expected draught.
They are two models of behavior in ritual activities after fishing: Canonic – Christian and Folklore - Christian. Each from them requires corresponding kind of behavior and assimilation which conducts to same result - obtain auspices from Supreme Goodness.
The ritual activities after fishing are important and responsible moment fisher’s activity united under on use common sense: to ensure good draught and family prosperity.
COMMANDER MINCHO KOLEV OSTREV (1898-1972) LIFE AND WORK
The author considers the engineer-technical achievements of commander Mincho Ostrev with which he contributed to the increase in the fighting capacity of the Bulgarian Navy. His scientific work after his discharge from military service is depicted. Along with his regular employment obligations as a technical officer he suggested and implemented improvements in the construction of the torpedo equipment on the torpedo boats of the “Drazki” type.
Lieutenant Ostrev undertook the risky commitment to prepare full constructive and technological documentation for the Bulgarian galvanic contact mine.
After leaving the Navy in 1943 he became the director of “Coralovag” and subsequently he was appointed professor in the Varna Technical University where he trained future ship builders, machine and electricity engineers, conducted researches, wrote articles, textbooks and reports.
FICTION ON THE PAGES OF “MORSKI SGOVOR” MAGAZINE
The publication is a survey of the fiction, literary and art criticism, articles of ethnographic and historical nature published in Morski Sgovor magazine. All these show the pioneer mission of the editorial staff in the confirmation of sea topics in the Bulgarian culture and spirituality. Thus the Bulgarian National Maritime Association (BNMA) endeavors to boost the sea-related branches of the Bulgarian economy, to assist the development of sea and river tourism. It makes the best efforts by promoting the sea culture of the Bulgarians to facilitate the development and enrichment of our national culture. The work of many Bulgarian writers, scientists and artists, dedicated to sea topics, is a proof that BNMA has been successfully fulfilling its mission.
THE FISHERY SCHOOL 1919-1933
This is scarcely researched topic and is based almost entirely on the documentary material kept by the Central Military Archive-Veliko Tarnovo. It deals with the establishment of the Fishery School, its contribution to the training of generation of experienced professionals in this field during one of the most difficult periods for the Bulgarian Navy- the decade after the First World War. The important factors for its survival, success and troubles were both the state policy represented by the ministers and chiefs of the navy and its separate principals. Though not definitive enough, this research confirms that the history of the Fishery School is part of Bulgaria’s sea history.
CAPTAIN YANKO KUTSAROV – THE FIRST HEAD OF THE BULGARIAN RIVER COASTAL NAVIGATION
The scientific article is an introduction to the professional development and the most significant moments of the autobiography of captain Yanko Kutsarov – one of the people whose name will remain permanently related to Bulgaria’s sea history. Captain Kutsarov`s role in the development of the Bulgarian state navigation along the Danube river is also described.
He participated in the First World War and was awarded a Bravery Medal for his heroism. He was definitively related to the sea profession after graduating from the shipmaster’s course in 1927. He was an active organizer of the establishment of the Bulgarian river coastal navigation. As the first director of River Coastal Navigation (1 May 1935 – 30 June 1940) he worked with an ardent ambition to foster its prosperity.
THE TORPEDO CUTTERS IN THE BULGARIAN NAVY
Nencho MITSULOV, Vladimir CHRISTAKIEV
The torpedo cutters in the period 1939-1992 are the main striking force of the Bulgarian Navy. In this study is shown the historical development of the Bulgarian Navy torpedo boats. All types of torpedo cutters of the Bulgarian Navy armaments are considered, when they were introduced, their armaments and their main constructive and tactics- technical data. In this study are shown the functions of the torpedo cutters and the main problems, which they can solve. Also is represented the used tactics by the torpedo cutters.
ACTIVITIES OF SOZOPOL MINESWEEPER COMPANY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR
This is a short representation of the study on mine situation at Bulgarian Black Sea coast during the Second World War. With this manuscript are shown the organization structure of the mine-trawler forces of the Bulgarian Navy and the main problems of the minesweeping division, the naval effectives of the minesweeping subdivision, and the commanders of the Sozopol minesweeping company. In the study are considered the trawlers armaments of the minesweeping subdivision, the applied minesweeping tactics and the minesweeping on during the Second World War.
THE BALKAN AND THE SEA
The author depicts the staff capacity of the Bulgarian navy as directly dependant on its origin. Until the middle of XX th century among the Bulgarians who devoted themselves to the sea (commandment staff in the feel and the Navy) the share of those coming from the mountain regions is larger than that of those coming from the sea towns and villages.
The positive cultural , ethical and intellectual heritage, which the mountain towns and families are able to offer to their sons, in the author’s opinion, is one of the major factors for the successful career of the individual sea farers and for the high quality of Bulgarian seamanship in general.
NOTES ABOUT THE USE OF THE MINE WEAPON IN BULGARIAN NAVY AND POSSIBILITIES FOR ITS APPLICATION AT ATOMIC DANGER
Krastu MALCHEV, Ilia KOVACHEV
Mine weapon had been used in Marine Naval Forces since 1879. In Bulgaria own manufacturing started at 1936. Mine weapon was used in all the wars that Bulgaria took part in. Its characteristics have kept it at armament until now. At atomic war, the mine weapon could be used for struggling the submarines and against marine paratroopers.
THE BULGARIAN NAVY IN DEFENSE OF OUR OUTLET ON THE AEGEAN SEA IN THE YEARS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1941-1944)
From the spring of 1941 to the autumn of 1944 Bulgaria again had an outlet on the Aegean sea. During that short time span the Ministry of war affairs undertook serious measures to strengthen the defense in the region. The major role in its defense was assigned to the Aegean Navy. In parallel with the defense of the region the government fostered all initiatives aiming at the enhancement of the Bulgarian presence in local ship construction, navigation and fishing.
THE NAVAL ARMAMENT DEPENDING ON THE ORGANIZATION FOR ITS USE AND STORAGE (1947-1990)
After the arrival of 13 vessels from the Soviet Union some organizational problems occur within the composition of the Bulgarian Navy in the autumn of 1947: new construction of armament and war supplies warehouses; training people how to work with the armament; carrying out mandatory control technical checks and repairs. These and many other specific problems were solved professionally and competently by several generations of fleet officers responsible for the armament, who established a whole school whose traditions still exist. In this research the author does not miss the opportunity to point out some serious mistakes and omissions made during the utilization of the armament by separate systems or ships.
THIRD INDEPENDENT BASE TRAWLERS DIVISION NAVAL MINESWEEPERS
On 11 August 1951 two base and two roadstead minesweepers, a roadstead boat and two ship stations for wireless degaussing arrived in Varna. The ships coming from the Soviet Union along with the destroyer “G. Dimitrov” formed third independent base trawlers division whose commandment was entrusted to commander Ivan Dobrev. This unusual formation existed only till the autumn of 1952. Its short history, however, was abundant in significant events and activities, part of which were carried out for the first time in the Bulgarian Navy. The manned crews and the trained personnel substantially contributed to the development of the minesweeping and trawling forces in our country.
TRAINING STUDENTS FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN THE NAVAL ACADEMY – VARNA IN THE PERIOD 1953-1959
The author investigates the selection and the training of foreign students from CSSR in the period 1953-1959, and also their realization in shipping and at shipbuilding enterprises after their graduation. The most important factors for success are the good selection and high-level of adaptation of students as well as special preparation and pedagogical skill of the lecturers of Naval Academy – Varna.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHIP FLEET OF THE NAVAL FORCES DURING THE PERIOD 1960-1990
During the period in question Bulgaria did not have Navy construction and development program in place. The Navy received ships defined and proposed by the Russian Navy. As a result till 1986 out of 48 warships 27 (or 56%) have served the term of their service and were morally and technically outdated. The author considers chronological developments in this sphere and leaves unanswered the following question: why in 1980s when it was stated that we had built two Bulgarias we managed to cut down the Navy more than twice.
COASTAL MISSILE EQUIPMENT OF THE BULGARIAN NAVY (1962-1979)
The author draws a comparison between the introduction of the cruise missile equipment and ship and coastal bases in the Bulgarian and foreign Navy, as it discusses specific reasons that have lead to the delivery of the first missile complex in our country. The organization, preparation and the fire tasks discharged by the Bulgarian coastal missile division are considered and some tactical and technical specifications of the cruise missile C-2 and the Sopka complex are set out. At the end of the research some outstanding issues are raised which might be of interest to the future studies of the same topic.
THE BULGARIAN NAVY – AT THE BACKGROUND OF THE GREAT WARS OF THE 20TH CENTURY OR A PRODUCT OF BULGARIAN STATE POLICY
This scientific work is an attempt at a retrospection of the 125-year history of the Bulgarian Navy. The attention is focused on the influence exerted by the military-political orientation of Bulgaria during and after the two big conflicts of the XXth cent. – the First and the Second World Wars on the Navy’s capacity. After the first war with the peace treaty of Neuilly (1919) Bulgaria was prohibited from having its own navy, and after the second war – with the peace treaty of Paris (1947) the navy was placed within minimum quantitative and qualitative limits. The parameters of the Bulgarian naval potential were defined not by nationally justified goals but rather by affiliation to one or another power in the international political sphere, which in its turn was predetermined by the successful or unsuccessful foreign policy of the respective Bulgarian governments.
BLACKSEAFOR HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
The foundation of the multinational naval operational union of the 6 Black Sea states “BLACKSEAFOR” on the 2 April 2001 was preceded by approximately a 10-year period of mutual investigation and intensive cooperation of expert groups. An important role in this activity was also assigned to the Bulgarian Naval Forces and in particular to the general staff of the Navy for enhancement of international contacts and the expansion of the participation in a series of international naval training programs in the region. A special place was occupied by the initiative of the commanders of the Bulgarian Naval Forces during that period: vice-admiral Dimitar Pavlov, vice-admiral Ventsislav Velkov, admiral Hristo Kontrov.
- Annual proceedings of the naval museum - volume VI
ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE NAVAL MUSEUM – VARNA
C O N T E N T S
Preface – 6
Vladimir PAVLOV. Memories from Naval museum part I. The beginning(1958 – 1959) – 8
Elka DROSNEVA. Radi Boev: The Man, The Historian, The Director – 27
Emil STANCHEV, Atanas PANAYOTOV. Captain Dr. Georgi Antonov, Ass. Prof. (1928 – 2008) – 43
Zheny HARALAMBIEVA. Collection of seals in the navy museum related to Bulgarian merchant navigation and shipbuilding – 49
Petar TODOROV. Naval museum and sub-aquatic archeological explorations in Bulgaria. Background and perspectives – 62
Stanka DIMITROVA. Unidentified sources for the history of some habitats in Dobrudzha and along Black Sea coast, 1854 – 67
Alexander VACHKOV. The uniforms in the Bulgarian Navy in the period 1879 – 1918..74 Asen KOZHUHAROV. What can we learn from the personal archive of a long-forgotten Naval Academy cadet? – 85
Veliko LECHEV. Military authorities of Bulgaria and its allies against russian officers’ mission in Turnu Severin, 1915–1916 – 95
Todor PETROV. The first flags of Bulgarian Navy – 109
Nina BOGDANOVA. The river Danube and the sea going ships of Silistra in 1950’s and 1960’s – 115
Mariana KRASTEVA. Captain Georgi Koupov (1884 –1959). Biographical sketch – 123
Atanas PANAYOTOV. Captain Boris Statelov (21.08.1886 - 22.10.1959) – 139
Bulgarian Maritime Industry – history and current state
Rumen NESTOROV. 15th Anniversary of Bulgarian Chamber of Shipping – 157
15th Anniversary of Cosmos Shipping PLC – 164
Varna Shipping and Trading Tenth Anniversary – 176
Ten-Year Presence of Stargate in Bulgaria – 183
A team to „Morski Vestnik” (Maritime newspaper). Navigation Maritime Bulgare in ХХI century (Chronicle of one dynamic development) – 190
* * *
Mariana KRASTEVA. The Black Sea and the river Danube in the Bulgarian historical researches (review 2000-2008) – 229
Authors – 234
MEMORIES FROM NAVAL MUSEUM PART I. THE BEGINNING (1958 – 1959)
The author worked with the museum for 35 years – from 1958 to 1993, walking all the way from curator to manager, followed by 6 years as a part-time associate. He describes his appointment, the state of affairs at the institution, his relations with the manager and the rest of scanty personnel officers. He was assigned in the safe-keeping of museum relics by introducing reporting practice and facilitating the satisfactory state for use. He participated in the rest of museum activities. Finally he voices the view that the Naval museum participated in laying the foundations for sub-aquatic archeology in Bulgaria by the expedition to Cape Kaliakra in 1959. He took part in that expedition.
RADI BOEV: THE MAN, THE HISTORIAN, THE DIRECTOR
The paper represents the very first results of a study about PhD Radi Boev (1923 - 1989) as a Man, a historian and a director (1965 - 1983) of the Sea and Naval Museum in Varna. It is based on author’s and other persons’ memories, archival sources from the collection of the museum and on Boev’s research works, publications and on some studies on his life and activities and on the history of the museum. Radi Boev was the first to study on a professional level the early history of Bulgarian navy after the liberation. Russian-Turkish wars in 18th and 19th centuries and Bulgarian participation in them were the next main sphere of his interests. Due to him many new sources from Russian archives and many new facts (including people’ names and biographies) were introduced in the history of this period. The appendixes include a bibliography of Boev’s scientific and popular publications and main dates and activities of his life. All this is devoted to Radi Boev’s 85th anniversary.
CAPTAIN Dr. GEORGI ANTONOV, Ass. Prof. (1928 – 2008)
Emil STANCHEV, Atanas PANAYOTOV
This essay presents in brief the life and work of Captain Dr. Georgi Antonov, Ass. Prof. (1928 – 2008) recognized doyen of fleet historians. He deserved such acknowledgement by his serious achievements in scientific and research work and dedicated tutorial and public activity. Since graduating the Naval Academy in Varna his overall officer’s service passed in that high educational institution as a commander and tutor. He was a director of the Naval museum between 1 November 1983 and 31 December 1991, deputy chairman and staff secretary of the Association for establishment of the Naval museum (1991) and leader of the team for establishment of Civil maritime activities exposition (1993 – 2003) with the Naval museum. The essay also presents the basic directions in captain Antonov`s studies primarily concerned with Bulgarian naval history.
COLLECTION OF SEALS IN THE NAVY MUSEUM RELATED TO BULGARIAN MERCHANT NAVIGATION AND SHIPBUILDING
The exposition contains 70 seals, used by merchant ship masters as well as maritime authorities and enterprises. These date back between the 1860’s and the beginning of ХХI century, brought to the museum in the period 1961 - 2004. Amongst the most valuable are the private seals of Petar Atanasov Popov, one of the founders of the first maritime shipping joint stock company in Bulgaria – Providenie (Providence), established in Istanbul in December 1862.
The official ship’s seal together with the signature of the authorized person plays a legitimate (identification) role and is therefore a recognized carrier of the state system. The symbols in use are numerous: anchor, anchor rope, boat, floating dock, shipyard scenario, open book, 5-point star. The words on the seals are both in Bulgarian and some foreign language, emphasizing the international accent of maritime navigation in Bulgaria.
Naval Museum and sub-aquatic archeological explorations in Bulgaria. Background and perspectives
The Naval Museum of Varna is the first one in Bulgaria, initiating and accomplishing sub-aquatic archeological explorations in the 1950’s.
Such have been made in the area of Cape Kaliakra (1959; 1961), the bay of Varna (1963), Cape Galata and Karantinata area (1963), Cape Shabla (1969) etc. with the participation of divers and museum employees. These research expeditions located a number of submarine objects, clarifying part of the history of Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The artifacts removed from sea bottom (anchors, cannon guns, ship equipment, amphorae etc.) expand the museum collection. Localized sunken habitats and ports represent the development and archeological background of Bulgarian territories.
Currently the Museum is not proceeding with sub aquatic explorations and has lost its due rank amongst scientific institutions involved in submarine archeology. A number of conditions should be satisfied to facilitated the home-coming of the Naval Museum of Varna to THE SEA prime source for replenishment of its stock.
UNIDENTIFIED SOURCES FOR THE HISTORY OF SOME HABITATS IN DOBRUDZHA AND ALONG BLACK SEA COAST, 1854
The proposed article offers reports from European journals from the remote 1854 on some Bulgarian habitats along Black sea coast and in Dobrudzha region. The Crimean war (1853 – 1856) broke out and in the summer of 1854 the Russians reached the Danube and laid siege to Silistra. The Ottoman army was supported by English, French and Sardinian allies. Varna turned into a centre and major supply base for the allies, and the ports of Balchik and Kavarna served for supplies of some commodities and transportation of allied forces to the Crimean peninsula. In the end of June 1854 Russians raised the siege of Silistra and the allies, doomed to inaction, were forced to proceed with reconnaissance in Dobrudzha. Troops passed through many settlements in Dobrudzha and along the Black sea coast collecting many impressions of interest – the nature, remnants from ancient times and cultures, peculiarities of the way of life of the local inhabitants. Information in foreign press of that time represents a valuable sources for investigation of the past of Dobrudzha and the Black Sea.
THE UNIFORMS IN BULGARIAN NAVY IN THE PERIOD 1879 – 1918
The author’s aim is to investigate the origin of the first Bulgarian marine uniforms. These appear by virtue of a decree of the Military administration № 315 dated 6 September 1883. Unveiled are details for the development of individual components from the uniforms of the officers, engineers and lower ranks in Danube fleet as well as Naval school students. Part of the uniforms are illustrated and restored by the author. One may conclude from the studies that metamorphoses in uniforms follow to a great extent the dynamics of development of the Navy itself. Many components becoming characteristic for Bulgarian marine uniform at a later stage are introduced during the captioned period, the time of constituting Bulgarian fleet uniform.
WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM THE PERSONAL ARCHIVE OF A LONG-FORGOTTEN NAVAL ACADEMY CADET?
It analyzes the contents of the newly discovered archives of Dimitar Maistorov - a cadet in the Machine School at His Majesty Navy, a participant in the attack against the Cruiser “Hamidie”, in the establishment of the hydroplane base “Bulgaria” in 1916 – 1918 and in the building of landing ships for the German Navy in the State Shipbuilding Yard – Varna during the World War II.
MILITARY AUTHORITIES OF BULGARIA AND ITS ALLIES AGAINST RUSSIAN OFFICERS’ MISSION IN TURNU SEVERIN, 1915–1916
In the article are discussed and clarified the tasks of the Russian Officers’ mission in Turnu Severin, reduced to destabilization of Bulgarian military authorities along Moravian riversides of the Danube and blocking of Austro-Hungarian and German river-going commercial fleet in the sector. The counter-measures of countries – members of the Four-party union are also discussed : Bulgaria utilized its land forces along Morava river in order to discomfit the sabotages planned by the mission; the Habsburgian monarchy and Germany reposed their well founded hopes in their military intelligence whose actions were directed by the staff of General field marshal August Von Mackensen. Thanks to the synchronized activities of the three sates, the Russian officers in Turnu Severin failed to carry out their plans. This allowed Bulgaria, Germany and Austro-Hungary to stabilize their positions along Lower Danube in 1916.
THE FIRST FLAGS OF BULGARIAN NAVY
The article discusses a key moment of the history of the Bulgarian army and especially the Navy – introduction of military flags in to its units. Presentation of military flags to the Naval school, Training battalion (for Black Sea Navy) and Danube fleet is dated 19 December 1937. The author explains the type and symbols of flags, the ceremony of presentation as well as the background until their transformation into museum exhibits in 1950.
THE RIVER DANUBE AND THE SEA GOING SHIPS OF SILISTRA IN 1950’s AND 1960’s
The proposed investigation discusses the utilization of sea-going ships in the economy of Silistra in 1950’s and 1960’s. It also describes the establishment of socialist enterprises Kamashit and Dredging fleet as well the utilization in their operation of natural resources extracted from the river Danube. A table based on archives is attached containing the number and names of floating facilities placed by merchant fleet and Navy at the disposal of state owned industrial enterprises and public organizations in Silistra.
Captain Georgi Koupov (1884 –1959) Biographical sketch
The biographical sketch offers new strokes to the profile of lieutenant junior grade Georgi Koupov who remained in history as renowned commander of Drazky torpedo boat during the Balkan war 1912 - 1913. Furthermore it is an attempt to establish his portrait of a professional and individual, too. The research is mainly based on non-published and scarcely known archives.
CAPTAIN BORIS STATELOV (21.08.1886 - 22.10.1959)
The article presents the life and life-work of one of the well known Bulgarian navy officers in the break of the ХХ century. Distinguished during the Balkan and First World War, Boris Statelov was appointed commander of the training cruiser Nadezhda repaired in the end of the war in occupied Sevastopol. A mutiny arose on board, transformed by official authorities in the 1950’s from criminal act into support of the October revolution in Russia. That was the reason for which Boris Statelov was completely ignored in Bulgarian military historiography until 1989. The contribution of Boris Statelov to the development of Bulgarian navy, public maritime movement and education in Bulgaria is revealed on the grounds of critique of previous publications and archives scarcely used or not used at all.
15TH ANNIVERSARY OF BULGARIAN CHAMBER OF SHIPPING
The Bulgarian Chamber of Shipping was found by decision of the Regional Court of Varna under № 637 dated 1993. It represents a voluntary non-profit association for stimulation, assistance, representation and protection of the interests of its members, ministering for national and international maritime economic cooperation and strengthening the spirit of honesty in Bulgarian maritime business. In the course of the last 15 years gone by priorities for Bulgarian Chamber of Shipping have been: participation in the elaboration of national programs for development of maritime business, consideration of proposals related to legislative and statutory basis in the field of water transport, fighting unfair competition in the industry. Standing members to the Chamber are more than 50 entities constituting the backbone of Bulgarian maritime industry.
15TH ANNIVERSARY OF COSMOS SHIPPING PLC
Cosmos Shipping was established on 15 July 1993 in Varna by overseas master mariner foreign going Plamen Prodanov. Initially the company was oriented towards brokerage and agency of marine vessels and lighter operations. Since the very beginning the Company has been general agent for Ukrainian Danube fleet based in Izmail, for all Black Sea and Danube ports. Development and expansion of Cosmos Shipping operations contributed to adoption of the Company as a member to BIMCO (The Baltic and International Maritime Council) in June 1997 with registration No. 118281, followed in March 2000 by membership in the International Bunker Industry Association (IBIA). Step by step Cosmos Shipping is increasing the number its vessels and expanding the scope of activities, thus strengthening its position of a weighty partner in the shipping industry.
10 YEARS VARNA SHIPPING AND TRADING
Varna Shipping and Trading Ltd was founded in Varna on 4th July 1998 by capt. Vesselin Guenov - Master Ocean Going. He started his career in Navibulgar and worked onboard dry cargo ships, sailing all over the world for 14 years, 6 of them as a master. Later he was appointed as Navibulgar representative in Genoa, Italy and from 1991 to 1998 Capt. Genov was president of the joint venture Navimed Srl, based in Venice, Italy.
Starting with only 4 employees, back in 1998, and main activities - brokerage, ship agency, consulting services, the company has been quickly developing and now in 2008 VST Ltd. has been entrusted the full management of seven vessels, owned by European Maritime Group.
The company has during the years established affiliated companies: Vesem Ltd (2001), Vestro Ltd (2001), Blue Sea Marine Services Ltd (2002), and Recorda Control and Services Ltd. (2004), covering a variety of marine activities and other services.
Today, 10 years later, the office personnel of VST and its subsidiaries numbers more than 100 persons. The company has a modern and beautiful office, which in 2006 won the national competition “Office of the year” award.
TEN-YEAR PRESENCE OF STARGATE IN BULGARIA
In 1997 representatives of Taiyo Nippon Kisen Company (TNKC) visit Bulgaria. TNKC is a management company member of the largest shipping companies worldwide – Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha – “K” Line. TNKC decides to try the business of recruiting Bulgarian ship officers onboard “K” Line vessels. The beginning is set with two chief officers. For ten years in the field Stargate Maritime Ltd. expands and starting with 2 persons in 1997, reaches the figure 306 in 2008. First cadets trained with the company are masters and chief engineers already. Stargate Maritime Ltd. is the first company on Bulgarian marine manning market with programs which include women. The company is a partner welcomed by maritime educational institutions in Bulgaria actively participating in the activities of local marine and public organizations.
NAVIGATION MARITIME BULGARE IN ХХI CENTURY
(Chronicle of one dynamic development)
A team to „Morski vestnik” (Maritime newspaper)
The chronicle comprises the major key events in the development of the state owned company Navigation Maritime Bulgare in 21st century (January 2000 – December 2007). It features are the changes in management, fleet and administrative structures, business achievements and problems solved by the managerial team. Figures and statistics are quoted from official annual financial reports, the most important resolutions of the Board of Directors of the Company, donations and social policy of the management. The chronicle starts from the hard times for the Company and ends with the official celebration of 115th anniversary of the modern Bulgarian merchant shipping, whit Navibulgar amongst the leading Bulgarian economic enterprises in turns of financial stability and development rates.
- Annual proceedings of the naval museum - volume VII
ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE NAVAL MUSEUM – VARNA
C O N T E N T S
Mariana KRASTEVA.The Beginning of the Bulgarian Navy on the Black Sea in Documents – 7
Mariana KRASTEVA, Atanas PANAYOTOV. 110 Years of the Bulgarian Naval Forces Headquarters (1899-2009) – 19
Atanas PANAYOTOV. Rear Admiral Sava Stefanov (1884-1970) – 48
Nevyana DIMITROVA. Engineer Zlatan Brachkov and his Contribution to the Maritime Economy of Bulgaria in Honour of 140 Years from his Birth – 64
Tsoncho RODEV. Underwater Archaeology in Bulgaria – Memories of the Beginning – 72
HISTORY AND CURRENT STATE
Ivelin IVANOV. War at Sea in 13th – 15th c. illuminated gothic manuscripts – 92
Nedko DIMITROV. Coastal Naval Forces Surveillance: From the Signal Service to the Information Systems – 102
Asen KOZHUHAROV. The Bulgarian Submarine Officers During WW I – 110
Alexander VACHKOV. The Uniforms of the Bulgarian Navy (1920-1950) – 121
Vladimir ZLATARSKY. Germany and the Bulgarian Navy’s Development during the 30-ies of the XX Century – 128
Aneta MARINOVA, Gena STOYANOVA. An Addition Related to the Fate of the Crew of the German Submarine UB-45 and grateful Bulgaria – 140
Evgenia RANGELOVA- PEEVA. The Two Filevs. Captain Vassil Evtimov Filev (1880-1952), Captain Evtim Vassilev Filev (1911-1985). A biographical sketch – 153
BOGDANOVA. The Nautical Club in Silistra (1947-1960) – 171
Valentin DIMITROV. Periodicals of Bulgarian Naval Forces after 1990 – 179
Vanyo MUSSINSKI. BLACKSEAFOR – Realization of an Idea of Confidence and Mutual Assistance – 194
Morski VESTNIK TEAM. Royal Helena. The first training sailing Ship Built in Bulgaria – 203
THE BEGINNING OF THE BULGARIAN NAVY ON THE BLACK SEA IN DOCUMENTS
Documents published herein cast further light upon a period of about ten years i.e. 1897-1908 the time when the French Naval Mission was working in Bulgaria. Those are official documents kept in Bulgarian public record offices – a Convention, decrees, orders. They denote terms, tasks and working conditions for the Mission and shape the parameters of a considerable stage in the navy development.
110 YEARS OF THE BULGARIAN NAVAL FORCES HEADQUARTERS (1899-2009)
This study traces the development of the basic ruling body of the Bulgarian Naval Forces which has been called Navy Headquarters for the best part of its 110 year history.The athors have been led by the will to clarify its functions in time of piece and to show the complex tasks performed in time of war. Outstanding commanders of Headquarters (chiefs of staff) have been brought forward as well as its contribution to the organization and direction of the whole activities of the Naval Forces.
REAR ADMIRAL SAVA STEFANOV (1884-1970)
Sava Stefanov is one of the most qualified among Bulgarian naval officers in the first half of the XX century. After the Neuilly Treaty (1919) he was commander of the Maritime commercial police service (The Black Sea Navy) from 1921 until 1925 and from 1925 till 1933 he was commander of the Detachment for naval and river police service and naval training ( Navy Commander). Under his command the basic navy structures were successfully preserved and in some respects they could be well developed irrespective of the forbidding clauses of the peace treaty. Sava Stefanov achieved those responsible positions after going through all basic commanding posts in the navy in the Balkan War and World War I. Those services were appraised on their merits and by an order dated 8 May 1935 he was conferred a high officer rank which due to bureaucratic cause was written “major-general”.
This paper purpose is to take the name of rear admiral Sava Stefanov from undeserved oblivion and to bring to light his main contribution to the survival and development of the Bulgarian navy in the years following the Neuilly Treaty.
ENGINEER ZLATAN BRACHKOV AND HIS CONTRIBUTION TO THE MARITIME ECONOMY OF BULGARIA IN HONOUR OF 140 YEARS FROM HIS BIRTH
Engineer Zlatan Stoyanov Brachkov is an eminent Bulgarian social figure and economic executive. He was born on 25 December in Svishtov. He graduated from the Federal Polytechnical Institute in Zurih, Switzerland as civil engineer.
One of his most inmortant merits to the Bulgarian maritime economy is the construction of Port of Varna under his direction in the period from 1901 to 1906. He took part in the social and public life of the country as a deputy, a participant in the Balkan War and World War I and mayor of Varna in 1922.
He was a Government delegate at the Bulgarian Commercial Society. He took part in the designing and direction of the building of scores of infrastructure sites in the country. He is one of the founders and first president of the Varna Technical Society which was later named Engineering Architectural Society – Varna.
SUBMARINE ARCHAEOLOGY IN BULGARIA – MEMORIES OF THE BEGINNING
The author took part in the first underwater archaeological expedition in Bulgaria –off Cape Kaliakra in 1959. Based on his recollection he relates of the first and hardest steps in mastering of submarine archaeology – a science which in the 1950s was totally new in Bulgaria. Due to its first-hand information the story contains elements of a document and is therefore witnessing to the motivation, the preparation of divers, the expedition carrying out and the lessons thereof.The excitement related to the successful finds at the following expedition in 1960 are of an equal interest for archaeologists, historians and divers.
WAR AT SEA IN 13TH – 15TH C. ILLUMINATED GOTHIC MANUSCRIPTS
The article deals with images of war at sea in 13th – 15th c. western European illuminated manuscripts. As the images in the illustrated manuscripts are among the more rarely used sources, the author focuses his attention exactly on them, looking for an answer to two basic questions: which of the images in question can be used as a reliable, objective information source, and how they confirm, complement and provoke the traditional notions of war at sea in the Middle Ages.
Very often those images represent a queer mixture of armament and details belonging to different historical periods but a more profound analysis leads to the following conclusions:
What makes impression is the fact that the better part of the represented armament and tactical skills almost entirely copy the ones used by the land forces (knightly banners, sling shooters, bow- or crossbowmen, face-to-face close combat, etc.).
Along with that some specific weaponry and elements, like small containers full of caustic lime or flammable fluid, several types of warships, the use of ships (as well as of fire artillery in the 14th and 15th c.) in fortress sieges can be differentiated.
Finally, the author arrives at the conclusion that the analyzed manuscripts give valuable information on war at sea.
COASTAL NAVAL FORCES SURVEILLANCE: FROM THE SIGNAL SERVICE TO THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The inception of coastal observation in Bulgarian Naval Forces goes back to the eve of the Balkan War (1912-1913). Initially observation posts were only built on the Black Sea and later on the Aegean Sea and the Danube river.The subdivisions took part in the Balkan War and in World War I and WW II. In 1953 radio technical services were found and the first coastal radio locating station for coastal surveillance was started. A new stage was set in the development of coastal surveillance by forming radio technical stations. Existing equipment was gradually substituted and modernized, the scope of task solution was expanded for the ship and coastal detachments.The last reorganization was made on 25 March by establishing a unified detachment for coastal information securing which provides a considerable contribution to warranting national sovereignty over Bulgaria sea areas.
THE BULGARIAN SUBMARINE OFFICERS DURING WWI
Asen N. KOZHUHAROV
Based on the newly-found data in the archives of the State Military Archives in Veliko Turnovo, the paper presents results of the research of the officer's personnel of the Bulgarian submarines during WWI.
THE UNIFORMS OF THE BULGARIAN NAVY (1920-1950)
The article is to continue the article by the same writer in Vol.VI of the Naval Museum Year-book, Varna, 2008.The period 1920 to 1950 abounds in events and changes of the political life in the country and in the organization and structure of the army and the navy.That leads to substantial changes of uniforms and accessories. The author’s opinion is that the upper limit of the discussed period is also a borderline of the stage of independent development of the Bulgarian navy in our modern history. The drawings illustrating part of the presentation are the author’s contribution.
GERMANY AND THE BULGARIAN NAVY’S DEVELOPMENT DURING THE 30IES OF THE XX CENTURY
During the 1930ies the German presence in Bulgaria adopted various forms and expanded towards different areas of the political, economic, social, military and cultural life. The old brotherhood in arms from the World War I was not only a cliché but represented the strong fundaments on which new contacts were built. During this period Bulgarian officers were trained in the Third Reich’s military establishments, specialised literature was thoroughly studied and the technical achievements of the German Military Science were broadly applied. Besides the programmes for improvement of the Bulgarian Navy through German technical supply, an essential role for the Bulgarian Nautical development played the newly bought ships for the Danube Fleet, as well as the participation in the planned Common-European traffic corridors. During this decade the Black Sea often turned to be the political arena of the German-Bulgarian friendship, especially after the rescue operation for the sunken German submarine, the visits of the light cruiser Emden etc. The result of all these intensive contacts was that on the Eve of the new Great War the Bulgarian Navy was ready to meet the expected new challenges.
AN ADDITION RELATED TO THE FATE OF THE CREW OF THE GERMAN SUBMARINE UB-45 AND CONSIDERATE BULGARIA
On 6 November 1916 in the course of World War I the German submarine UB-45 sank in Bulgarian Black Sea waters. Twenty-two years later a monument was raised in memory of the crew with means of the Bulgarian Ministry of War, a tribute to the German seamen who perished in doing their duty to their country and allies.
Based on sources from the State naval and historical archives the writers cast additional light on those events.
THE TWO FILEVS CAPTAIN VASSIL EVTIMOV FILEV (1880-1952) CAPTAIN EVTIM VASSILEV FILEV (1911-1985)
Evgenia RANGELOVA- PEEVA
Based on abundant sources and publications the author has carried out a study which results into a biography of representatives of two consecutive generations of captains: Vassil Filev is one of the emblematic figures in the Bulgarian merchant shipping of the first half of the twentieth century, while Evtim Filev is his son who also stepped on the bridge, assuming the relay-race baton across the seven seas. Their personal fates developed against the ground of political events and blows, thus outlining the Bulgarian shipping during most of the past century.
THE NAUTICAL CLUB IN SILISTRA (1947-1960)
The article traces the history of the Nautical club in Silistra in the mentioned period drawing attention to the fact that, starting from zero- without means or equipment within several years swimming sections, rowing, sailing, modelshipbuilding, motor boating sports have been built and are being developed. Participation in regional and national competitions is described showing the way the Silistra Club records its success into the history of water sports in Bulgaria.
PERIODICALS OF BULGARIAN NAVAL FORCES AFTER 1990
The article analyses the “Morski pregled” newspaper and the annex to the magazine “Club Ocean”- “Voennomorski pregled“. A brief survey is made of analogous publications of the naval forces of the Russian Federation and of the US naval forces and the naval forces of Rumania. A separate part is devoted to the forerunners of the two publications of the navy after 1990 – the fortnightly “Morski Pregled”, issued with interruptions in the course of 1930-1960 and the weekly “Naroden Flot” (named “Dimitrovska Vahta” in 1951) which was issued in the period 1945-1988.
A particular attention is given to the finding, development and establishing, of the subject orientation and the meaning of the “Morski Pregled” newspaper – 49 issues in the period 1992-1999 and the annex to the “Club Ocean” magazine, “Voennomorski Pregled”- 124 issues from January 1999 until June 2009. Both publications are estimated as witness to and participant in the changes of the Naval Forces in modern times. Similarities and difference compared with their forerunners are shown, particular ways of financing in market conditions, noting that Naval Forces have not a potential of their own to maintain periodicals.
BLACKSEAFOR — REALIZATION OF AN IDEA OF CONFIDENCE AND MUTUAL ASSISTANCE
On 2 April all Black Sea states signed an instrument of a historical importance: an agreement for the establishment of an operating group for cooperation, called BLACKSEAFOR (Black Sea Naval Cooperation Task Group). By that document for the first time in the history of the region the Black Sea states agreed to use their naval forces together in performing common tasks for peaceful purposes and security in that part of the world. The author traces the realization of that idea as a direct participant in the process — commander of the frigate “Smeli” which represents Bulgaria in different activations of BLACKSEAFOR on a regular basis.
ROYAL HELENA-THE FIRST TRAINING SAILING SHIP BUILT IN BULGARIA
Morski vestnik TEAM
On 10 October 2008 the first bottom section of training sailing vessel of 420 ton displacement was officially laid at the MTG-Dolphin PLC-Shipbuilding and Shiprepairing Plant in Varna. The Vessel was ordered by the Bulgarian company “Top Sail” LTD. On 31 August 2009 an official ceremony took place in Varna. The godmother Michaela Lazarova called her by the name of “Royal Helena”.
That is the first training sailing ship ever ordered and built in Bulgaria. Seven shipbuilding plants in the world only would perform such an order in 2008.
That type of building had not been undertaken in Bulgaria for 60 years since the last motor sailing vessel which was also a motor cargo vessel called “Goryanin”, measuring 370 ton displacement was built in Strandja Cooperative Union shipbuilding plant in 1947.
The model trails performed in the basins of the Bulgarian Ship Hydrodynamics Center with the Bulgarian Academy of Science proved good seaworthiness and speed parameters in the design of the new sailing vessel with the rigging of a barquentine. The sailing vessel designed limited up to 20 knots under sail only (of overall sail area more than 1 000 sq. m.) and over 11 knots with its 450 h. p. motor on (a Volvo-Penta).
Those parameters were confirmed both during the trials of the barquentine and the first trials of the barquentine and the first trials in the Black Sea.